Transfer Pricing Law in India

Increasing participation of multi-national groups in economic activities in the country has given rise to new and complex issues emerging from transactions entered into between two or more enterprises belonging to the same multi-national group. With a view to provide a detailed statutory framework which can lead to computation of reasonable, fair and equitable profits and tax in India, in the case of such multinational enterprises, the Finance Act, 2001 substituted section 92 with a new section and introduced new sections 92A to 92F in the Income-tax Act, relating to computation of income from an international transaction having regard to the armís length price, meaning of associated enterprise, meaning of information and documents by persons entering into international transactions and definitions of certain expressions occurring in the said section.

Section 92: As substituted by the Finance Act, 2002 provides that any income arising from an international transaction or where the international transaction comprise of only an outgoing, the allowance for such expenses or interest arising from the international transaction shall be determined having regard to the armís length price. The provisions, however, would not be applicable in a case where the application of armís length price results in decrease in the overall tax incidence in India in respect of the parties involved in the international transaction.

Armís length price: In accordance with internationally accepted principles, it has been provided that any income arising from an international transaction or an outgoing like expenses or interest from the international transaction between associated enterprises shall be computed having regard to the armís length price, which is the price that would be charged in the transaction if it had been entered into by unrelated parties in similar conditions. The armís length price shall be determined by one of the methods specified in Section 92C in the manner prescribed in Rules 10A to 10C that have been notified vide S.O. 808 E dated 21.8.2001.

Specified methods are as follows:
a. Comparable uncontrolled price method;
bResale price method;
c.Cost plus method;
d.Profit split method or
e.Transactional net margin method.

The taxpayer can select the most appropriate method to be applied to any given transaction, but such selection has to be made taking into account the factors prescribed in the Rules. With a view to allow a degree of flexibility in adopting an armís length price the proviso to sub-section (2) of section 92C provides that where the most appropriate method results in more than one price, a price which differs from the arithmetical mean by an amount not exceeding five percent of such mean may be taken to be the armís length price, at the option of the assessee.

Associated Enterprises: Section 92A provides meaning of the expression associated enterprises. The enterprises will be taken to be associated enterprises if one enterprise is controlled by the other, or both enterprises are controlled by a common third person. The concept of control adopted in the legislation extends not only to control through holding shares or voting power or the power to appoint the management of an enterprise, but also through debt, blood relationships, and control over various components of the business activity performed by the taxpayer such as control over raw materials, sales and intangibles.

International Transaction:Section 92B provides a broad definition of an international transaction, which is to be read with the definition of transactions given in section 92F. An international transaction is essentially a cross border transaction between associated enterprises in any sort of property, whether tangible or intangible, or in the provision of services, lending of money etc. At least one of the parties to the transaction must be a non-resident. The definition also covers a transaction between two non-residents where for example, one of them has a permanent establishment whose income is taxable in India.

Sub-section (2), of section 92B extends the scope of the definition of international transaction by providing that a transaction entered into with an unrelated person shall be deemed to be a transaction with an associated enterprise, if there exists a prior agreement in relation to the transaction between such other person and the associated enterprise, or the terms of the relevant transaction are determined by the associated enterprise.

An illustration of such a transaction could be where the assessee, being an enterprise resident in India, exports goods to an unrelated person abroad, and there is a separate arrangement or agreement between the unrelated person and an associated enterprise which influences the price at which the goods are exported. In such a case the transaction with the unrelated enterprise will also be subject to transfer pricing regulations.

Documentation: Section 92D provides that every person who has undertaken an international taxation shall keep and maintain such information and documents as specified by rules made by the Board. The Board has also been empowered to specify by rules the period for which the information and documents are required to be retained. The documentation has been prescribed under Rule 10D. Such documentation includes background information on the commercial environment in which the transaction has been entered into, and information regarding the international transaction entered into, the analysis carried out to select the most appropriate method and to identify comparable transactions, and the actual working out of the armís length price of the transaction. The documentation should be available with the assessee by the specified date defined in section 92F and should be retained for a period of 8 years. During the course of any proceedings under the Act, an AO or Commissioner (Appeals) may require any person who has undertaken an international transaction to furnish any of the information and documents specified under the rule within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of notice issued in this regard, and such period may be extended by a further period not exceeding thirty days.

Further, Section 92E provides that every person who has entered into an international transaction during a previous year shall obtain a report from an accountant and furnish such report on or before the specified date in the prescribed form and manner. Rule 10E and form No. 3CEB have been notified in this regard. The accountants report only requires furnishing of factual information relating to the international transaction entered into, the armí s length price determined by the assessee and the method applied in such determination. It also requires an opinion as to whether the prescribed documentation has been maintained.

Burden of Proof: The primary onus is on the taxpayer to determine an armís length price in accordance with the rules, and to substantiate the same with the prescribed documentation: where such onus is discharged by the assessee and the data used for determining the armís length price is reliable and correct there can be no intervention by the Assessing Officer (AO). This is made clear in sub-section (3) of section 92C which provides that the AO may intervene only if he is, on the basis of material or information or document in his possession of the opinion that the price charged in the international transaction has not been determined in accordance with the methods prescribed, or information and documents relating to the international transaction have not been kept and maintained by the assessee in accordance with the provisions of section 92D and the rules made there under, or the information or data used in computation of the armís length price is not reliable or correct ; or the assessee has failed to furnish, within the specified time; any information or document which he was required to furnish by a notice issued under sub-section (3) of section 92D. If any one of such circumstances exists, the AO may reject the price adopted by the assessee and determine the armís length price in accordance with the same rules. However, an opportunity has to be given to the assessee before determining such price. Thereafter, the AO may compute the total income on the basis of the armís length price so determined by him under sub-section (4) of section 92C.

Section 92CA provides that where an assessee has entered into an international transaction in any previous year, the AO may, with the prior approval of the Commissioner, refer the computation of armís length price in relation to the said international transaction to a Transfer Pricing Officer. The Transfer Pricing Officer, after giving the assessee an opportunity of being heard and after making enquiries, shall determine the armís length price in relation to the international transaction in accordance with sub-section (3) of section 92C. The AO shall then compute the total income of the assessee under sub-section (4) of section 92C having regard to the armís length price determined by the Transfer Pricing Officer.

The Transfer Pricing Officer means a Joint Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner/Assistant Commissioner authorized by the Board to perform functions of an AO specified in section 92C & 92D.

The first proviso to section 92 C(4) recognizes the commercial reality that even when a transfer pricing adjustment is made under that sub-section the amount represented by the adjustment would not actually have been received in India or would have actually gone out of the country. Therefore no deductions u/s 10A or 10B or under chapter VI-A shall be allowed in respect of the amount of adjustment.

The second proviso to section 92C(4) provides that where the total income of an enterprise is computed by the AO on the basis of the armís length price as computed by him, the income of the other associated enterprise shall not be recomputed by reason of such determination of armís length price in the case of the first mentioned enterprise, where the tax has been deducted or such tax was deductible, even if not actually deducted under the provision of chapter VIIB on the amount paid by the first enterprise to the other associate enterprise.

Penalties: Penalties have been provided as a disincentive for non-compliance with procedural requirements.
Explanation 7 to sub-section (1) of section 271 provides that where in the case of an assessee who has entered into an international transaction any amount is added or disallowed in computing the total income under sub-sections (1) and (2) of section 92, then, the amount so added or disallowed shall be deemed to represent income in respect of which particulars have been concealed or inaccurate particulars have been furnished. However, no penalty under this provision can be levied where the assessee proves to the satisfaction of the Assessing Officer (AO) or the Commissioner of Income Tax (Appeals) that the price charged or paid in such transaction has been determined in accordance with section 92 in good faith and with due diligence.
Section 271AA provides that if any person who has entered into an international transaction fails to keep and maintain any such information and documents as specified under section 92D, the AO or Commissioner of Income Tax (Appeals) may levy a penalty of a sum equal to 2% of the value of international transaction entered into by such person.
Section 271BA provides that if any person fails to furnish a report from an accountant as required by section 92E, the AO may levy a penalty of a sum of one lakh rupees.
Section 271G provides that if any person who has entered into an international transaction fails to furnish any information or documents as required under section 92D (3), the AO or CIT(A) may levy a penalty equal to 2% of the value of the international transaction.
Above mentioned penalties shall not be imposable if the assessee proves that there was reasonable cause for such failures.

Some Important Definitions: Section 92F defines the expressions ď accountant armís length priceĒ, ďenterpriseĒ, ďpermanent establishmentĒ, ďspecified dateĒ and ďtransactionĒ used in section 92,92A, 92B, 92C,92D and 92E. The definition of enterprise is broad and includes a permanent establishment (PE) even though a PE is not a separate legal entity. Consequently, transaction between a foreign enterprise and its PE, for example between the head office abroad and a branch in India, are also subject to these transfer-pricing regulations. Also the regulations would apply to transactions between foreign enterprise and a PE of another foreign enterprise. The term PE has been defined on the lines of the definition found in tax treaties entered into by India with other countries. PE includes a fixed place of business through which the business of the enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

Transfer orders of Deputy/ Assistant Commissioners
The order of Deputy/ Assistant Commissioners of Income Tax which were kept in abeyance has been released.

E-returns Are Finally There!
The Income Tax Department will inaugurate electronic filing of returns from 8 August 2003 to allow salaried taxpayers to file their returns without having to come to the department. E-filing of returns will allow those who only have salary income to approach a designated bank with their tax challans or Form 16 and proof of savings, who will then file the returns to the Income Tax department electronically. A taxpayer must, however, have a Permanent Account Number (PAN) to avail of the facility. The Income Tax department has selected six banks to work as designated intermediaries for the purpose. They are UTI Bank, HDFC Bank, IDBI Bank, ICICI Bank, Bharat Overseas Bank and Indian Overseas Bank. The e-filing scheme will initially be restricted to seven cities: the four metros as well as Ahmedabad, Bangalore and Hyderabad. Based on the success of the project, it will be extended to other cities.?

Transfer of Commissioners of Income Tax
Central Board of Direct Taxes has transferred 139 Commissioners of Income Tax through out the country on 5th August, 2003. ORDER NO.121 OF 2003.PDF

Local Transfer of Commissioners
Simplified And Less Expensive Settlement Of Tax Offences
In an order to expedite settlement of large number of very old prosecution cases, the Income Tax department has simplified the procedure for compounding and also reduced the compounding fees. For instance, the Chief Commissioners of Income Tax have been authorized to finalize certain category of cases without making any reference to CBDT, as was necessary earlier. Further, compounding fees for failure to deduct or pay tax has been reduced from 10 percent and 5 percent, respectively, to just 2 percent. Compounding of cases of tax evasions will be done at 50 percent of amount sought to be evaded as against 100 percent in some cases and 200 percent in other cases earlier.
Details of new procedure are contained in guidelines dated 29 July 2003 and these can be received throughe-mail on request.

New Transfer Policy Effective From FY 2004-05
Under new transfer and placement policy of the Central Board of Direct Taxes all transfers and postings of Group ĎAí officers in Income Tax department shall be made by the a Placement Committee headed by Chairman, CBDT, or on itís recommendations. All stations will be categorized in three classes and tenure of stay in each class has been prescribed. These transfer guidelines will, however, not be applicable to Chief Commissioners or Director Generals. Annual transfer orders will be issued by 30 April of the year. This policy shall come into effect from 2004-2005. CBDT has been given the discretion to follow either old or new transfer policy for postings during current year. Departmental officers desirous of receiving a copy of new transfer policy may register with us. Those who register with us will also receive transfer orders, instructions and other important announcements regularly through e-mail.
View Transfer Policy

Department's Free Software For Preparing Return Of Income
The Department's Free Software For Preparing Return Of Income Continuing its initiatives to use technology to provide better services to taxpayers, the Income Tax Department has released latest version of free software for preparation of returns of income, called 'Sampark 2003-04'. Through a simple question answer session, this software can be used by all taxpayers, other than those having income from 'Business or Profession', to prepare their return of income for Assessment Year 2003-04. Taxpayers have the option of preparing their return on the Internet itself and taking a print out for filling with the department. It is, however, recommended that the free software should be downloaded on PCs for easier and multiple usage.
Address your queries on this software to

Extension of time for filing return
The Central Board of Direct Taxes has extended time for filing returns from 31.07.03 to 30.09.03. This will enable taxpayers e-file returns for assessment year 2003-2004. Details of e-filing scheme will be announced shortly. Extended time will help taxpayers obtain PAN before filing return of income, as quoting PAN on return of income is mandatory. 
Another Milestone Towards Simplification Of Tax Administration
The Existing fifteen (15) forms prescribed for filing returns for tax deducted at source (TDS) have been reduced to just three (3) forms. This also means that same tax deductor, who was earlier required to use different forms for deductions from different sources, will now be able to use same form for filing returns for deductions from different sources. Instead of existing form 25, 26A, 26B, 26BB, 26C, 26D, 26F, 26G, 26H, 26-I, 26J and 26K only form 26 will serve the purpose. Returns for tax deducted at source from salaries will continue to be filed in form 24 and form 27 will be applicable for returns for tax deducted at source from Non Residents. Similarly, number of forms for filing returns for tax collection at source (TCS) has been reduced from four to one. Consequently, returns for tax collection from any source will have to be filed in form 27E. Other three forms, 27EB, 27EC and 27ED, have been omitted.
Quoting Of PAN On Return Of Income
The CBDT has considered the inconvenience in filing returns of income that may be caused to taxpayers who had applied for PAN after 1 April 2003 either to an Income Tax authority or at an IT PAN Service Center but have not yet received the PAN. In this backdrop, the CBDT has directed field offices of Income Tax to accept returns of income of such taxpayers, who had applied for PAN after 1 April 2003, provided a copy of PAN application so filed is enclosed along with return of income.

Extension Of Time For Filing Of Returns Due On 31 October 2003
Date : 21-OCT-2003
Through a clarification issued on 20.10.03 the Central Board of Direct Taxes has allowed one more month for filing of tax audit report, u/s 44AB of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Further, date for filing of returns in the case of partners of firms, required to file audit report u/s 44AB, has also been extended. In both situations, time has been extended up to 30.11.03

The Central Board Of Direct Taxes has allowed one more month for filing of returns of income to Corporates and also those assessees whose accounts are required to be audited under Section 44AB of the IT Act, 1961. These assessees have been allowed time upto 30 November 2003 to file returns of income.

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